A town included in care of historical monuments is world-wide known for cutting of precious stones and unique production of jewels from the Bohemian garnets. The town is a starting point for walks through the unique region of the Bohemian Paradise. Turnov was founded on the river Jizera around 1250 by Markvartic dynasty. The first written evidence of the town dates back to 1272, when traditions of handcraft and trade started to develop. The dominant feature is the typical, actually unfinished tower of the Neo-gothic cathedral of the Virgin Mary from the 19th century. The Baroque tower of the Church of St. Nicolas can easily be seen across the valley of the river Jizera. Inside there are the tombstones of the Vartenberk family. On the upper side of the main square there is the Church of St. Francis of Assisi, built together with a monastery in the middle of the 17th century. The oldest building in the Turnov region is the Church of St. John the Baptist in the district of Nudvojovice, built at the turn of 12th and 13th centuries. In the end of the 19th century it was rebuilt to Neo-gotic style but its original Romanesque portal was preserved. Near by main square thre is the District Museum of the Bohemian Paradise (an exposition of precious stones, jewels, geology, archaeology, history and ethnography). Here is found unique panoramatic painting of Mikuláš Aleš "Massacre of Saxons under Hrubá Skála", the largest painting in the Middle Europe. A meaningful monument is Jewish cemetery. The oldest tombstones are dating from the 17th century. On the periphery of Turnov there is also Hrubý Rohozec mansion featured in Empire style. Further towards Železný Brod in the valley of the Jizera river there is an unique country house Dlask Farm, the most beautiful example of folk timbered architecture from year 1716. There is a permanent exposition of folk furniture and tools inside.